FiberTechnology

Fiber technology

Wet spinning line

Fiber Technology

Fibers, films and nonwovens

Fibers, films and nonwovens for industrial and textile applications, as well as respective processes for their production are key issues of industry-related work of the Fiber Technology department. Extensive and variable equipment for solution and melt spinning in the laboratory and pilot plant scale are available, here. The use of biopolymers such as cellulose, lignin, proteins, or polylactide and the development of environmentally friendly, efficient spinning technologies play an important role. With the extensive analytical capabilities for structure characterization at the Fraunhofer IAP, structure-property-relationships can be elucidated in order to draw conclusions for the corresponding spinning technology, resulting in optimal material properties.

Our services

  • pulp analysis (DP, ash content, α-, β-and γ-cellulose content, ...)
  • viscose characterization (cellulose and alkali content, filterability, γ-value, °H, κ-number)
  • development and adaptation of the wet spinning process in customized polymers
  • processing of polymer solutions for the Lyocell technology
  • melt spinning process for new thermoplastic polymers
  • production of nonwovens for the meltblown process

Our research topics

With about 2.5x106 tons of the annual world production the viscose process is the most important process for the production of cellulosic fibers. The equipment of the Fraunhofer IAP − including viscose production and a wet-spinning line − allows the development of viscose filaments based on wood pulp or pulp blends.

Based on the concept of the melt-like processing of cellulose/NMMNOxH2O solutions, the Fraunhofer IAP promoted together with industrial partners for the first time a technology for the production of meltblown nonwovens from cellulose.

Another promising approach is based on highly concentrated liquid crystalline systems of cellulose derivatives in NMMO/water or in ionic liquids and their processing by dry jet-wet spinning process. In this way, fibers arise with superior properties that have great potential for technical applications. Precursors for carbon fibers from biobased and synthetic polymers, their spinning and subsequent processing steps are also on the agenda as well as high-strength protein fibers or textile polylactide fibers as an alternative to petroleum-based polyester fibers.

Equipment

  • HAAKE rheometer RS 150 * RheoStress (cone-plate device HC 35/1)
  • video-assisted microscopy
  • IKA high-performance lab kneader HKD-T 06D (0.5 L)
  • Femix kneader with discharge (5 L)
  • LIST horizontal kneader Discotherm B63 (50 kg/h)
  • solution sets, volume of 3 to 10 kg
  • pilot-plant for viscose, Blaschke
  • wet spinning line
  • Lyocell laboratory spinning plant
  • Fourné bicomponent spunbond plant (3 kg / 1 kg) for takeoff speeds up to max. 1800 m/min
  • stabilization and carbonization unit for carbon fiber development

Selected publications

  • H.-P. Fink, H. Ebeling, W. Vorwerg: Technologien der Cellulose- und Stärkeverarbeitung, Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 81, p. 1757 (2009)
  • H. Ebeling, H.-P. Fink, M. Luo, H.-G. Geus: Cellulose Meltblown Nonwovens Using the Lyocell Process, Lenzinger Berichte, 86, p. 124 (2006)
  • H. Ebeling, H.-P. Fink: Cellulosefasern und Vliesstoffe - neue Wege zur Herstellung auf Basis von Cellulosecarbamat, naro.tech Erfurt, (2010)
  • H.-P. Fink, H. Ebeling, R. Rihm: Fibre Formation from Liquid Crystalline Solutions of Cellulose Carbamate in N-Methylmorpholine-N-Oxide, Proceedings of the
    7th Int. Symp. “Alternative Cellulose- Manufacturing, Forming, Properties”, p. 13-23,
    Rudolstadt (Germany), 6.-7.9.2006

Selected patents

  • H. Ebeling, H.-P. Fink: Cellulosecarbamat-Spinnlösung, Cellulosecarbamat-Blasfolie sowie Verfahren zu deren Herstellung und Verwendungsmöglichkeiten,
    10 2008 018 745.3-43 (2008)
  • H. Ebeling, H.-P. Fink: Blasfolien aus Cellulose und Verfahren zu deren Herstellung,
    US 2009 0259 032 A1 (2009)
  • H. Ebeling, H.-P. Fink, M. Doß: Vliesstoffe und ein Verfahren zu deren Herstellung,
    DE 10 2005 029 793 B4 (2007)